In1999, the price of oil hovered around $16 a barrel. By 2008, it had 21 the $100 a barrel mark. The reasons for the surge 22 from the dramatic growth of the economies of china and India to widespread 23 in oil-producing regions, including Iraq and Nigeria's delta region. Triple-digit oil prices have 24 the economic and political map of the world, 25 some old notions of power. Oil-rich nations are enjoying historic gains and opportunities, 26 major importers—including china
and India, home to a third of the world's population-- 27 rising economic and social costs.
Managing this new order is fast becoming a central 28 of global politics. Countries that need oil are clawing at each other to 29 scarce supplies, and are willing to deal with any government, 30 how unpleasant, to do it .
In many poor nations with oil , the profits are being ,lost to corruption, 31 these countries of their best hope for development. And oil is fueling enormous investment funds run by foreign governments, 32 some in the west see as a new threat.
Countries like Russia, Venezuela and Iran are well supplied with rising oil 33, a change reflected in newly aggressive foreign policies. But some unexpected countries are reaping benefits, 34 costs, from higher prices. Consider Germany. 35 it imports virtually all its oil, it has prospered from extensive trade with a booming Russia and the Middle East. German exports to Russia 36 128 percent from 2001 to 2006.
In the United States, as already high gas prices rose 37 higher in the spring of 2008,the issue cropped up in the presidential campaign, with Senators McCain and Obama 38 for a federal gas tax holiday during the peak summer driving months. And driving habits began to 39 ,as sales of small cars jumped and mass transport systems 40 the country reported a sharp increase in riders.
21. A. come B. gone C. crossed D. arrived
22. A. covered B. discovered C. arranged D. ranged
23. A. intensity B. infinity C. insecurity D. instability
24. A. drawn B. redrawn C. retained D. reviewed
25. A. fighting B. struggling C. challenging D. threatening
26. A. and B. while C. thus D. though
27. A. confine B. conflict C. conform D. confront
28. A. problem B. question C. matter D. event
29. A. look for B. lock up C. send out D. keep off
30. A. no matter B. what if C. only if D. in spite of
31. A. abolishing B. depriving C. destroying D. eliminating
32. A. what B. that C. which D. whom
33. A. interests B. taxes C. incomes D. revenues
34. A. as many as B. as good as C. as far as D. as well as
35. A. Although B. Because C. Since D. As
36. A. advanced B. grew C. reduces D. multiplied
37. A. even B. still C. rather D. fairly
38. A. asking B. requesting C. calling D. demanding
39. A. change B. turn C. shift D. transform
40. A. for B. from C. across D. over